Wireless Communication Networks And Systems Beard Pdf Download
Wireless Communication Networks and Systems covers all types of wireless communications, from satellite and cellular to local and personal area networks. Organized into four easily comprehensible, reader-friendly parts, it presents a clear and comprehensive overview of the field of wireless communications. For those who are new to the topic, the book explains basic principles and fundamental topics concerning the technology and architecture of the field. Numerous figures and tables help clarify discussions, and each chapter includes a list of keywords, review questions, homework problems, and suggestions for further reading. The book includes an extensive online glossary, a list of frequently used acronyms, and a reference list. A diverse set of projects and other student exercises enables instructors to use the book as a component in a varied learning experience, tailoring courses to meet their specific needs.
Wireless Communication Networks And Systems Beard Pdf Download
LANs are widely used to connect computers/laptops and consumer electronics which enables them to share resources (e.g., printers, fax machines) and exchange information. When LANs are used by companies or organizations, they are called enterprise networks. There are two different types of LAN networks i.e. wireless LAN (no wires involved achieved using Wi-Fi) and wired LAN (achieved using LAN cable). Wireless LANs are very popular these days for places where installing wire is difficult. The below diagrams explain both wireless and wired LAN.
Open System Interconnections (OSI) is a network architecture model based on the ISO standards. It is called the OSI model as it deals with connecting the systems that are open for communication with other systems.
Multidrone systems: More than the sum of the partsNow that drones have evolved to agile devices, a challenge is to combine multiple drones into an integrated autonomous system, offering functionality that individual drones cannot achieve. Such multidrone systems require connectivity, communication, and coordination. We discuss these building blocks along with case studies and lessons learned.
Multiple, siloed network management tools increase complexity and risk. Unify remote, branch, campus, and data center connectivity by converging the management of wired, wireless, and WAN networks onto a single cloud-native platform.
In 5G, network traffic is dominated by streaming or video applications. Except for all the applications mentioned above and requirements, we can study from 5G physical information communication [16, 17] which CR networks are robotics controlled. Factory logistics and automated driving are fresh cellular technology applications, but still, there are some new challenges. Using such applications for network traffic analysis, several mobile objects transfer control and sensor information overload the central network in control system. Artificial intelligence used distributed control systems is developing research focus for future technology and demand. It is to be supposed that artificial intelligence and such application networks will dominate CR network traffic requirement of 6G. This area of research is untouched that makes its presence challenging .
We will illustrate the 6G CR network vision in this paper. The first 6G CR networks will be sea integrated space air-ground networks for global network communication coverage. UAV communication, satellite communication, and naval communication will encompass vast areas for CR network communication coverage. All spectrums will be evident for providing a high data rate. For full application enabling, machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies will be competently combined with 6G CR networks communication for better automation and network management . Besides, artificial intelligence technology can enable dynamic arrangement of a network, resource computing for performance betterment, and caching of 6G networks. Last but not least, high network security is required for the physical and network layer during development. Industry verticals like the internet of things (IoT) [22, 23], virtual cloud reality, industry automation, digital body area network, cellular vehicle to everything, energy-efficient CR network, and central acknowledged system would boost the progress of 6G CR network communication. 6G CR network overview is shown in Figure 1. There is detailed intuition of 6G in Figure 2. Table 1 is for the acronyms used in the paper.
Reality extended or extended reality facilities containing mixed reality (MR), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR) are key features of the 6G CR network communication system. Such features use 3D objects, and AI is the basic element of such features. In addition, they are providing perceptual needs of cognition, human sense, computing, physiology, and storage. 6G will avail guaranteed immersive VR/AR/MR understanding by joint high quality and designed integration of 6G CR network system. Live view of the physical world is possible by augmented reality (AR), that is, parts are amplified by different sensor inputs by way of visuals, video, audio, and worldwide aligning data system. Present reality uses and makes addition by some sort of devices. While computer-simulated 3D experienced is virtual reality (VR), where computer technology uses authorized headsets to generate realistic feelings and imitate actual surroundings and create the unreal world. VR surroundings engage five human senses. In the end, MR merAR and VR generate a new atmosphere and visualization to attract in the actual period. Mixed reality (MR) is also called hybrid reality. Its key characteristics are fundamental, and artificial world contents can reply to each other in real-time. XR is a combination of natural and virtual surroundings and human-machine communication generated by wearable computer technology. It consists of all forms like VR, AR, and MR. XR brings these under a single term. Low latency, reliable, and high data rate CRN systems connectivity given in 6G system are significant for original XR experience .
BCI controls daily used appliances in innovative societies, specifically medical systems and home used appliances. It represents direct communication between external devices and the brain. It acquires brain signals which send to the digital devices, interpret, and examine the signals into other movements. Topographies of 6G CRN communication will provision actual BCI execution for quality of living standards.
AI-based automation will be available in 6G technology. Automation term suggested to processes automated control systems and devices. The automation system in 6G will provide secure, scalable, highly reliable, and feasible CR communication using low latency and high data rates.
Soil humidity measurements have been a backbone in irrigation verdicts for periods now inside the larger precision agriculture domain. Though, real-time extents and irrigation automation keys still face challenges curtailing strong CR communication coverage deficiency. Working beyond modest automated irrigation explanations, high-performance accuracy agriculture is principally centered around bringing data-driven visions to address the precise needs of farms, customers, soil, and crop. Simultaneously, scalable and appropriate access to such data is a crucial challenge due to breaches in rural connectivity. Consequently, there is a consideration that 6G CR network systems, with their attention on ubiquitous CR, will play a key role in attracting 6G technology in the agricultural invention.
In CR networks, privacy protection is a basic need in 6G technology. In CRNs, data can be lost or stolen and can be physically attacked. CRNs are more sensitive in security threats than traditional wireless networks, because in CRNs, there seems no proper cooperation in between PU and SU communication. Several security issues caused by CR, because CRN environment is sensing information based, can vary node behavior. As learning is one of the basic characters of CR, because of this having wrong supposed environment, may cause to give error in new decision. In resultant, malicious attack will take advantage for long-term effect on behavior.
In 5G CR networks, artificial intelligence works in separate areas where a huge quantity of robust and training data and hidden nodes also exist. AI will play an important role in 6G wireless networks. There is a greater impact of machine learning and AI technologies on privacy in two ways. First, the right applications of machine learning may improve 6G privacy, while second, on machine learning attacks, privacy defilements may occur. When AI transfers to the network edge, more sophisticated applications will work on devices, increasing attack threats. Although, integrating privacy-protecting mechanisms in resource-constrained devices will be stimulating. While in 6G, AI can be divided among several layers, such as computing layers (network function virtualization, software design network, and edge computing) and physical layer (data link and network architecture devices). There may be security issues of malicious behavior, control access, communication, and authentication, etc.
Blockchain privacy and security problems are associated with the communication process, access control, and verification. Recently, in the telecommunication industry, blockchain gained much more attention. Benefits of blockchain like nonreputation, disintermediation, proof of provenance, immutability, pseudonymity, and integrity are particularly important to enable various facilities in 6G technology with privacy and security. The use of AI and some analytic technologies may cause attacks such as evasion attacks in the testing process and poisoning attacks in the training process. Blockchain can guard against protecting the reliability of AI data via distributed trust and immutable records between various shareholders, with assurance in the AI system in multitenant. In 6G networks, this trust gives the required confidence for clients to adopt AI-based security management systems, and it may be insufficient in preventing their failure and breach in AI systems. Blockchain-based projects can be used in trust-level agreements in the liability of each party. In , authors studied blockchain radio access network architecture to effectively manage and secure network verification and access between trustless objects. In , authors studied to enhance the security of CRNs by a blockchain method to contact vacant license spectrum. In addition, to support blockchain role to adjust with 6G necessities, several current 5G models need active involvement. Blockchain plays an important role in privacy protection in 6G networks. In blockchain, having mutual communication channel may permits users to be recognized by pseudoname instead of personal identities.