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Concrete Bridge Practice by V K Raina: A Complete and Practical Handbook for Bridge Practitioners



Concrete Bridge Practice by V K Raina: A Comprehensive Guide for Bridge Engineers




Concrete bridges are among the most common and important structures in civil engineering. They serve as vital links for transportation, communication, and development across various terrains and environments. However, designing, constructing, maintaining, and managing concrete bridges is not a simple task. It requires a thorough understanding of the principles, methods, and practices of bridge engineering, as well as a keen awareness of the challenges and opportunities in this field.




Concrete Bridge Practice Vk Raina Pdf


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One of the most authoritative and comprehensive books on concrete bridge practice is written by Dr V K Raina, a renowned bridge engineer with over five decades of experience in teaching, research, consultancy, and administration. His book, titled Concrete Bridge Practice: Analysis, Design and Economics, was first published in 1991 by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, and has since been revised and updated several times. The book covers all aspects of concrete bridge practice, from conceptual planning to construction supervision, from structural analysis to economic evaluation, from design standards to case studies. It is a valuable resource for bridge engineers, students, teachers, researchers, consultants, contractors, and policy makers.


In this article, we will provide an overview of the book by V K Raina, highlighting its main features and benefits. We will also discuss some of the key topics covered in the book, such as analysis, design, and economics of concrete bridges. We will show how the book combines theoretical knowledge with practical applications, using examples and illustrations from real-world projects. Finally, we will conclude with some FAQs about concrete bridge practice or the book by V K Raina.


Introduction




What is concrete bridge practice and why is it important?




Concrete bridge practice refers to the art and science of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and managing concrete bridges. It involves applying engineering principles, methods, techniques, tools, and materials to create safe, functional, durable, aesthetic, and economical structures that meet the needs and expectations of various stakeholders.


Concrete bridge practice is important because it contributes to the development and progress of society by facilitating transportation, communication, and trade across different regions and countries. It also enhances the quality of life and well-being of people by providing access, mobility, and connectivity. Moreover, concrete bridge practice is a challenging and rewarding profession that requires creativity, innovation, problem-solving, teamwork, and leadership skills.


Who is V K Raina and what are his credentials and achievements?




V K Raina is a distinguished bridge engineer who has made significant contributions to the field of concrete bridge practice in India and abroad. He has the following credentials and achievements:



  • He obtained his B.E. degree in civil engineering from the University of Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee) in 1954, and his Ph.D. degree in structural engineering from the University of London (Imperial College) in 1962.



  • He served as a professor and head of the civil engineering department at IIT Delhi from 1970 to 1986, and as the director of the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) from 1986 to 1990.



  • He has been a consultant and adviser to various national and international organizations, such as the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, the Indian Roads Congress, the Indian Railways, and the Ministry of Surface Transport.



  • He has authored or co-authored over 200 technical papers and reports on various aspects of bridge engineering, and has edited or co-edited several books and journals on the subject.



  • He has received several awards and honors for his outstanding work and service in bridge engineering, such as the Padma Shri (1988), the S.S. Bhatnagar Prize (1975), the Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship (1977-79), the Fazlur Rahman Khan Medal (1994), and the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Indian Concrete Institute (2007).



What are the main features and benefits of his book?




The book by V K Raina is one of the most comprehensive and authoritative books on concrete bridge practice available in the market. It has the following features and benefits:



  • It covers all aspects of concrete bridge practice, from conceptual planning to construction supervision, from structural analysis to economic evaluation, from design standards to case studies.



  • It provides a balanced treatment of theory and practice, with emphasis on both fundamentals and applications.



  • It incorporates the latest developments and trends in concrete bridge practice, such as prestressed concrete, composite construction, segmental construction, cable-stayed bridges, seismic design, durability, rehabilitation, and maintenance.



  • It illustrates the concepts and principles with numerous examples and illustrations from real-world projects in India and abroad.



  • It includes a wealth of data, tables, charts, graphs, diagrams, equations, formulas, and references for easy reference and use.



  • It is written in a clear, concise, and lucid style that is suitable for both beginners and experts.



Overview of the book




How is the book organized and what are the main topics covered?




The book by V K Raina is organized into four parts: Part I: General; Part II: Analysis; Part III: Design; Part IV: Economics. Each part consists of several chapters that deal with specific topics related to concrete bridge practice. The following table summarizes the main topics covered in each part:



PartTopics


I: General- Introduction- Planning- Loads- Materials- Construction- Maintenance


II: Analysis- Basic concepts- Statically determinate structures- Statically indeterminate structures- Influence lines- Approximate methods- Distribution coefficients- Moment distribution- Slope deflection- Matrix methods- Finite element method- Plastic analysis- Dynamic analysis


III: Design- Design criteria- Design process- Reinforced concrete bridges- Prestressed concrete bridges- Composite bridges- Segmental bridges- Cable-stayed bridges- Arch bridges- Special bridges


IV: Economics- Cost components- Cost estimation- Cost optimization- Cost comparison- Cost evaluation


What are the key concepts and principles explained in the book?




The book by V K Raina explains many key concepts and principles related to concrete bridge practice. Some of them are:



  • The concept of bridge system as a combination of sub-systems such as superstructure, substructure, foundation, bearings, joints, etc.



How does the book combine theory and practice with examples and case studies?




The book by V K Raina is not only a theoretical treatise on concrete bridge practice, but also a practical guide that demonstrates how to apply the theory to real-world situations. The book combines theory and practice with examples and case studies in the following ways:



  • It provides worked-out examples for each topic or method of analysis or design, showing the steps and calculations involved.



  • It presents illustrative examples of various types of concrete bridges from India and abroad, highlighting their features, advantages, disadvantages, and challenges.



  • It includes case studies of some of the major concrete bridge projects in India and abroad, such as the Narmada Bridge, the Bandra-Worli Sea Link, the Konkan Railway Bridges, the Second Hooghly Bridge, the Rion-Antirion Bridge, the Millau Viaduct, and the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge.



  • It discusses the practical aspects of concrete bridge practice, such as construction methods, quality control, inspection, testing, monitoring, repair, retrofitting, and maintenance.



The book by V K Raina thus provides a comprehensive and holistic view of concrete bridge practice that integrates theory and practice with examples and case studies.


Analysis of concrete bridges




What are the different types of concrete bridges and how are they classified?




Concrete bridges are structures that are made of concrete or reinforced concrete as the main material for their superstructure or substructure. Concrete bridges can be classified into different types based on various criteria, such as:



  • The type of loading: static or dynamic



  • The type of span: simple or continuous



  • The type of cross-section: solid or hollow



  • The type of construction: cast-in-situ or precast



  • The type of reinforcement: conventional or prestressed



  • The type of composite action: monolithic or non-monolithic



  • The type of shape: rectangular or curved



  • The type of support: fixed or movable



  • The type of configuration: slab, beam, girder, arch, truss, frame, cable-stayed, suspension, etc.



Some examples of different types of concrete bridges are shown in the following table:



TypeDescriptionExample


Slab bridgeA bridge that consists of a single or multiple slabs supported by beams, columns, walls, or abutments.


Beam bridgeA bridge that consists of one or more beams supported by columns, piers, or abutments.


Girder bridgeA bridge that consists of one or more girders supported by columns, piers, or abutments. Girders can be solid or hollow, rectangular or I-shaped.


Arch bridgeA bridge that consists of one or more arches supported by abutments or piers. Arches can be solid or ribbed, fixed or hinged.


Cable-stayed bridgeA bridge that consists of one or more towers supporting a deck by means of cables. Cables can be straight or harp-shaped, parallel or fan-shaped.


What are the basic assumptions and methods of analysis for concrete bridges?




The analysis of concrete bridges involves determining the internal forces, stresses, strains, and deflections of the bridge components under various loads and conditions. The analysis of concrete bridges is based on some basic assumptions and methods, such as:



  • The assumption of linear elasticity: The stress-strain relationship of concrete and steel is assumed to be linear and elastic within the elastic range.



  • The assumption of plane sections: The cross-sections of the bridge components are assumed to remain plane and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis after bending.



  • The assumption of compatibility: The deformations of the bridge components are assumed to be compatible with each other and with the boundary conditions.



  • The assumption of equilibrium: The sum of the external forces and moments acting on the bridge components is assumed to be equal to the sum of the internal forces and moments.



  • The method of superposition: The effects of different loads and load combinations are assumed to be additive.



  • The method of influence lines: The variation of a response quantity (such as shear force, bending moment, or deflection) along a span due to a unit load moving across the span is represented by a graphical function called an influence line.



  • The method of distribution coefficients: The distribution of moments at a joint between two or more members is determined by using empirical coefficients based on the relative stiffnesses of the members.



  • The method of moment distribution: The moments at the joints of a continuous structure are determined by using an iterative procedure that involves distributing and balancing the moments among the members.



  • The method of slope deflection: The displacements and rotations at the joints of a continuous structure are determined by using equations that relate them to the moments at the ends of the members.



  • The method of matrix methods: The displacements, rotations, forces, and moments in a structure are determined by using matrix algebra and computer programs.



  • The method of finite element method: The structure is divided into small elements connected by nodes, and the equations governing the behaviour of each element are assembled into a system of equations that is solved by computer programs.



What are the factors affecting the behaviour and performance of concrete bridges?




The behaviour and performance of concrete bridges are affected by various factors, such as:



  • The type and magnitude of loads: Concrete bridges are subjected to different types of loads, such as dead load, live load, wind load, earthquake load, temperature load, shrinkage load, creep load, etc. The magnitude of these loads depends on the location, geometry, material, and usage of the bridge.



  • The type and properties of materials: Concrete bridges are made of concrete and steel as the main materials. The properties of these materials, such as strength, stiffness, ductility, durability, etc., influence the behaviour and performance of the bridge. The properties of concrete and steel may vary due to factors such as quality control, environmental exposure, aging, etc.



The type and configuration of structure: Concrete bridges can have different types and configurations, such as slab, beam, girder, arch, cable-stayed, suspension, etc. The type and configuration of the structure affect Design of concrete bridges




What are the design criteria and standards for concrete bridges?




The design of concrete bridges involves selecting the appropriate dimensions, shapes, materials, and details of the bridge components to ensure their safety, serviceability, durability, aesthetics, and economy. The design of concrete bridges is governed by various criteria and standards, such as:



  • The design loads: The bridge components must be designed to resist the effects of the design loads, such as dead load, live load, wind load, earthquake load, temperature load, shrinkage load, creep load, etc. The design loads are specified by the relevant codes or authorities.



  • The design strength: The bridge components must be designed to have sufficient strength to resist the internal forces and moments induced by the design loads. The design strength is determined by applying the appropriate factors of safety or load factors to the nominal strength of the materials and sections.



  • The design serviceability: The bridge components must be designed to limit their deformations and vibrations under service loads to acceptable levels. The design serviceability is checked by applying the appropriate factors of safety or load factors to the service loads and comparing the resulting deflections and frequencies with the specified limits.



  • The design durability: The bridge components must be designed to withstand the effects of environmental exposure and deterioration over their intended service life. The design durability is ensured by selecting suitable materials and properties, providing adequate cover and protection, applying appropriate quality control and inspection measures, and considering maintenance and repair strategies.



  • The design aesthetics: The bridge components must be designed to have a pleasing appearance that harmonizes with the surrounding environment and satisfies the aesthetic preferences of the stakeholders. The design aesthetics is influenced by factors such as shape, color, texture, proportion, symmetry, balance, contrast, etc.



  • The design economy: The bridge components must be designed to minimize their initial and life-cycle costs while meeting the functional and performance requirements. The design economy is achieved by optimizing the material usage, simplifying the construction methods, reducing the maintenance needs, enhancing the service life, etc.



  • The design standards: The bridge components must be designed in accordance with the applicable codes or standards that provide rules and guidelines for concrete bridge practice. Some of the common codes or standards for concrete bridge design are:




  • ISO 28842:2013 - Guidelines for simplified design of reinforced concrete bridges



  • EN 1992 - Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures



  • AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications



  • ACI 318 - Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete



  • CSA S6 - Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code




What are the steps involved in the design process of concrete bridges?




The design process of concrete bridges involves a series of steps that lead from the initial conception to the final construction. The steps involved in the design process of concrete bridges are:



  • Planning: This step involves defining the objectives, scope, and constraints of the bridge project; collecting and analyzing the relevant data and information; identifying and evaluating the possible alternatives; selecting the optimal solution; preparing the preliminary plans and estimates; obtaining the necessary approvals and permits.



  • Analysis: This step involves determining the internal forces, stresses, strains, and deflections of the bridge components under various loads and conditions; checking the stability, strength, serviceability, and durability of the bridge components; identifying and resolving the critical issues and challenges.



  • Design: This step involves selecting the appropriate dimensions, shapes, materials, and details of the bridge components; ensuring the safety, functionality, aesthetics, and economy of the bridge components; complying with the applicable codes or standards; preparing the detailed drawings, specifications, and calculations.



  • Construction: This step involves procuring the required materials, equipment, and labor; executing the construction activities; monitoring and controlling the quality, cost, and time of the construction process; testing and inspecting the completed bridge components; handing over the bridge to the owner or operator.



What are the common design issues and challenges for concrete bridges?




The design of concrete bridges involves dealing with various issues and challenges that arise from the complexity, uncertainty, and variability of the bridge project. Some of the common design issues and challenges for concrete bridges are:



  • The selection of the optimal type and configuration of the bridge structure that suits the site conditions, functional requirements, aesthetic preferences, and budget constraints.



The estimation and prediction of the loads and effects that act on the bridge structure during its service life, considering the


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